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APA Citation Style, 7th edition: E-mail

Helpful Tip!

Question Mark Beanie

E-mails are not included in the reference list because they do not provide recoverable data. Personal communication includes personal interviews, letters, phone calls, email, or messages from nonarchived discussion groups.

E-Mail

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Sender First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication, Month Day, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Sender First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication, Month Day, Year)

References:

Not included.

Example

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(K. Johnson, personal communication, March 25, 2010)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(K. Johnson, personal communication, March 25, 2010)

References:

Not included.